Wednesday, August 26, 2020

NT Lab free essay sample

Characterize why change control the executives Is applicable to security activities In an association? Change control is a precise method to moving toward change. Inside an association, it can forestall the chance of administrations getting hindered and assuming this is the case, give an arrangement to bring them back up at the earliest opportunity. 2. What kind of access control framework utilizes security names? Mark base access control (ALBA) 3. Portray two choices you would empower In a Windows Domain secret phrase strategy? Least secret word length and secret key multifaceted nature prerequisites 4.Where would fix the board and programming refreshes fall under in security tasks and the board? Checking, Tracking, Testing 5. Is there a setting in your GPO to indicate what number of login endeavors will lockout a record? Name 2 boundaries that you can set to upgrade the entrance control to the framework. Record lockout span and limit 6. What are some Password Policy boundary alternatives you can characterize for Goops that can upgrade the C-I-A for framework get to? Least secret key length, greatest secret key age, secret key must meet intricacy necessities, and store passwords utilizing reversible encryption 7. We will compose a custom article test on NT Lab or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page What sources you use as a source to play out the MOBS security state? PC by Name or IP and various Computers by Domain or IP Range 8. What does WOWS depend on, and what does It do? Windows Server update Service and it downloads Microsoft updates to a solitary 9. What is the distinction among MOBS and Microsoft Update? Hordes examines for security vulnerabilities while Microsoft update checks the Microsoft database for accessible updates. They are two entirely unexpected devices. 10. What are a portion of the alternatives that you can practice when utilizing the MOBS instrument?

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Literary Analysis of “A Doll’s House” by Henrik Ibsen Free Essays

In the play â€Å"A Doll’s House† Henrik Ibsen acquaints us with Nora Helmer and gives us how spontanesly her plan of the perfect life can change when a mystery of her is uncovered. Nora’s spouses advancement to Manager of the town Bank, leaves her persuade she will be carrying on with a great life; stress and effortless. Nonetheless, Nora’s thought of a superb life is totally changed when her since a long time ago stayed quiet is uncovered. We will compose a custom article test on Scholarly Analysis of â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Henrik Ibsen or then again any comparative theme just for you Request Now It is Christmas time when the play starts and with a bigger salary beginning after the New Year, Nora is energized for an appearance of another life. However, this perfect life for her starts to change when an old companion by the name of Mrs. Linde visits the Helmer family unit. Mrs. Linde, searching for a vocation has come to Nora searching for help through her significant other; this fervor has Nora trusting â€Å"He must Christine. Simply leave it to me; I will introduce the topic cunningly I will consider something that will satisfy him without question. It will make me so glad to be of some utilization to be you† (677). In spite of the fact that, Torvald is glad to offer Mrs. Linde work, Nora is ignorant is has made one stride nearer to her mystery being uncover. As the story unfurls Nora starts to understand her husband’s capacity to give Mrs. Linde’s new position, implies Mr. Krogstand the man holding her mystery is left jobless; causing Nora to understand the cons of helping Mrs. Linde. â€Å"By matters of business, for example, business as you and I have had together-do you think I don’t get that? Great. Do however you see fit. Be that as it may, let me disclose to you this-If I lose my position a subsequent time, you will lose yours with me† (688). Mr. Krogstand utilizes the forces he has over Nora, to attempt to keep his activity. He discloses to her, that in the event that he loses his place at the bank to Mrs. Lindke, he will make certain to reveal to Nora’s mystery to her family. Acknowledging what this would do to the great life to come after the New Year, she asks Torvald to discover a spot for Mr. Krogstand. In any case, Torvald selects not to discover a situation for him and with Mr. Krogstand keeping to his promise he composes a letter to Torvald uncovering Nora’s mystery; making the scene when everything in Nora’s life changes. As Torvald gets the letter, he carries on with rage â€Å"It is inconceivable to the point that I can’t take it in. Be that as it may, we should go to some understanding. Remove that shawl. Take it off, I let you know. I should attempt to assuage him somehow. The issue must be quieted at any expense. What's more, with respect to you and me, it must show up as though everything between us were similarly as in the past yet normally just according to the world. You will even now stay in my and that involves course. In any case, I will not permit you to raise the youngsters; I dare not trust them to you. To imagine that I ought to be obliged to state so to one whom I have cherished so beyond a reasonable doubt, and whom I still-. No, that is everywhere. From this second bliss isn't the inquiry; every one of that worries us is to spare the remaining parts, the pieces, and the appearance-â€Å"(715 ). In was in this resentment of wrath that’s Nora’s dream of the destined to be great life, is changed. In spite of the fact that it was not long after this shock from Helmer that he gets another letter saying Nora’s mystery is protected; it was past the point of no return for Nora. The shock has caused Nora to acknowledge things about her life and discloses to Helmer â€Å"I imply that I was just moved from papa’s hands into yours. You masterminded everything as indicated by your own taste, thus I got into indistinguishable tastes from you-or, more than likely I claimed to, I am truly not exactly sure which-I think here and there the one and here and there the other. At the point when I think back on it, it appears to me as though I have existed only to perform ticks for you, Torvald. In any case, you would have it so. You and daddy have submitted an incredible sin against. It is your issue I have made nothing of my life† ( 717). This circumstance has made the opportunity for Nora acknowledge she has been living in another person shadows. She isn't sure what her identity is or even her preferences and with that she parts of the bargains has been living. â€Å"Indeed, you were splendidly right. I am not fit for the undertaking. There is another assignment I should embrace take first. I should attempt to instruct myself-you are not the man to help me in that. I should do that for myself. Furthermore, that is the reason I am going to leave you now† (719). She isn't sure what her identity is or even her preferences and with that she parts of the bargains has been living. At the point when the play â€Å"A Doll’s House† started we were acquainted with Nora as a character who was energized for her new life after the New Year. However, an unforeseen visit from an old companion caused Nora to settle on a choice that wound up coming about her mystery start uncovered to her family. As this mystery was uncover, it caused Nora to understand the ideal life she thought she needed after the New Year was not the existence she needed. Giving us that occasionally things don’t consistently go as arranged. Step by step instructions to refer to Literary Analysis of â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Henrik Ibsen, Papers

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

plan ahead COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

plan ahead COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Our office will be closed in observance of the Thanksgiving holiday this Thursday and Friday.   If you are planning to visit us this week to drop off materials or to ask questions or simply to say hey, the Admissions Financial Aid Office will close at 2pm EST on Wednesday, November 27 and reopen on Monday, December 2 at 9am EST.   So please plan accordingly.   We would love to welcome you when we are here. If you call to leave a message or email, we will get back to you next week.  Due to the high volume of emails and voicemails we have received, it is taking us longer to address each concern We appreciate your patience     We are sensitive to the approaching MIA/MPA application deadline on January 6.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Thomas Hobbes And The United States - 1374 Words

Hobbes conclusion that citizens choose to create a government in order to move beyond a mutual state of distrust. To accomplish this, the two parties must first agree that the aforementioned distrust will lead to the destruction of both parties. They then must establish a social contract that each party will give up their right to hurt the other. This agreement gives the right to punish others to a sovereign power that will provide both parties with security but will leave their lives alone in all other aspects. In restraining themselves in their right to harm another, they create a commonwealth that uses the strength of all to secure all. Hobbes does not hesitate to point out the consequences that result from the exchange of individual†¦show more content†¦Unlike Hobbes, Locke argues that people are always naturally in a state of nature and it is not a relic or notion that has been left in the past. If humans live in a constant state of nature, then Locke believes that ther e must be natural laws that govern relationships. With true Aristotelian undertones, Locke concludes that no one should â€Å"harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions,† (Second Treatise, II). As an extension of the Golden Rule, people should treat other’s rights in a way they would wish their own rights to be treated. Once he established the idea of natural rights, Locke contests that the creation of government stems from the collective need for one’s natural rights to be defended. The creation of government would extend and enlarge the natural rights of the citizens who created it, as long as it is a government that is â€Å"incapable of abusing its powers,† (p. 200). The establishment of a righteous government would promote citizens core rights with the help of civil law. Government would not be instituted if it did not ultimately provide a benefit to citizens and enhance their life, liberty and estate. In order for a society to institu te a society and government, a social and political contract must be made. The social contract, according to Locke, should have unanimous consent from every party involved while theShow MoreRelatedThomas Hobbes and His Contribution to the Constitution Essay608 Words   |  3 PagesThomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was an important figure in thee contribution to the Constitution. He was born on April 5th 1588 in Westport, Wiltshire, England and died December 4th 1679 in Hardwick, England. Hobbes’ uncle sponsored his education at Oxford University. In 1604, Hobbes’ father also named Thomas Hobbes, left his family and never returned to be seen again. Hobbes’ also had three siblings; two brothers and a sister. He wrote three major writings; De corpore (published eventually in 1655)Read MoreThomas Hobbes And The Philosophy Of Political Science1729 Words   |  7 Pagesgovernment. While studying, Thomas Hobbes wondered about why people were allowing themselves to be ruled and what would a great form of government for England. He reasoned that people were naturally wicked and shouldn’t be trusted to govern themselves because they were selfish creatures and would do anything to better their position and social status. These people, when left alone will go ba ck to their evil impulses to get a better advantage over others. So Thomas Hobbes concluded that the best formRead MoreThomas Hobbes And The Enlightenment878 Words   |  4 Pageswhat type of government is best? Thomas Hobbes, an Englishman born in 1588, is one of the Enlightenment thinkers. Hobbes wrote The Leviathan, published in 1651, observing the violence and behavior of people near the end of the English Civil War. He believed that monarchy is the best government. John Locke, another Enlightenment thinker, is an Englishman born in 1632. Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government, published in 11689,expressing his opinions on the â€Å"state of nature† and types of governmentRead MoreEssay on Contrasting Thomas Hobbes and John Locke1011 Words   |  5 PagesContrasting Hobbes and Locke Nearly two-hundred and twenty-five years ago the United States of America chose to fight a Thomas Hobbes government, with the hope of forming a John Locke institution. The ideas of these men lead to the formation of two of the strongest nations in the history of the world: Great Britain followed by the United States. Thomas Hobbes viewed the ideal government as an absolute monarchy, due to the chaos of the state of nature in contrast, John Locke’s idealRead MoreThe Seatbelt Law, By Thomas Hobbes, And Jean Jacques Rousseau1262 Words   |  6 Pagespeople around the United States commute daily to work, and to run their errands. In almost every state in the United States, wearing a seatbelt is required. Many people ask why they should have to wear a seatbelt in their private vehicles, while others agree that everybody definitely should wear their seatbelt. Should the government be able to create and enforce this laws such as this one on the public? This paper will discuss the seatbelt law, the views of philosophers Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-JacquesRead MoreViews of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau815 Words   |  4 PagesArden Bentley AP Euro 3/9/13 Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Racques Rosseau were philosophers who stated their belief of human nature and how we should govern mankind. Although Rousseau was born a different time than Hobbes and Locke, they all had a very strong influence on the way governments should function. They created a revolutionary idea of the state of nature, the way men were before a government came into play. Each philosopher developed guidelines and responsibilities that the governmentRead MoreModern Practices Of Hobbes And Rousseau Core Humanities Paper No1470 Words   |  6 Pagesï ¿ ¼University of Nevada, Reno Modern Practices of Hobbes and Rousseau Core Humanities Paper No. 1 Kimberly Martin CH 202 Joe Taglieber September 22, 2015 Martin !1 ï ¿ ¼Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were philosophers from the 16th and 17th centuries. Hobbes and Rousseau developed theories that explained the development of human nature and how men govern themselves given the circumstances around them. Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau both have become the most influential philosophers ofRead MoreEssay on Thomas Hobbes and the Social Theory Contract597 Words   |  3 PagesHamilton implored the newly formed 13 States of the United States of the need for a strong federal government; he feared the grave dangers awaiting this newly formed body of States. â€Å"A man must be far gone in Utopian speculations who can seriously doubt that, if these States should either be wholly disunited, or only united in partial confederacies, the subdivisions into which they might be thrown would have frequent and violent contests with each other. To presume a want of motives for such contestsRead MoreHobbes And Malcolm X s Views On Political Legi timacy Essay1721 Words   |  7 PagesMuslim black nationalist from the 1960’s – hypothetically of course. One might think that they would have absolutely nothing in common; however, Thomas Hobbes and Malcolm X have more in common than it appears. While the two theorists are very different, they share several common ideas about political legitimacy. In this paper, I will argue that although both Hobbes and Malcolm X would agree that a government must provide protection for its citizens to be considered legitimate, Malcolm X extends that criteriaRead MoreThe State Of Nature And Government1315 Words   |  6 Pages THE STATE OF NATURE AND GOVERNMENT Chloe Holmeshaw BF190 Dr. Charles Wells October 11, 2015 â€Æ' The State of Nature and Government The State of Nature and governing in â€Å"The State of Nature† are two subject that Hobbes and Locke both discuss in their book. The enlightenment period was a time of Learning, new inventions, new theories, and new government. Two prominent figures that became known during the enlightenment were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1674) and John Locke (1632-1704). These enlightenment

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Phrases for Greeting People in English

When meeting people, there is a number of greetings you can use in English. These depend on whether you are arriving somewhere, leaving, meeting people you already know, or meeting someone for the first time. Depending on the situation, there are formal and informal ways of greeting each other. However, there is some overlap between the two, and you can almost never go wrong using some of the formal expressions in other settings as well. Meeting People When arriving at your destination or meeting people during the day, use the following phrases: Formal Hello.Good morning/afternoon/evening.How are you (doing)?(Its) nice/good/great to see you.How is your day (going)? Informal Hi.Hey (man).Hows it going?How is everything/life?How are things?Whats up/new?Whats going on?How have you been?Long-time no see.Its been a while. Example Dialogues Person 1: Good morning, John.Person 2: Good morning. How are you? Person 1: Whats up?Person 2: Nothing much. You? Leaving People At departure, there is also a variety of ways you can be polite or friendly: Formal Goodbye.Bye.It was nice to meet you.It was nice meeting you.Goodnight.Have a good night. Informal See you.See you soon/next time/later/tomorrow.I have to go now.I have to get going.(It was) good seeing you.Take care (of yourself).Till next time. Example Dialogues Person 1: I have to get going, Sam. It was good seeing you today.Person 2: You, too. See you soon again. Bye! Person 1: Goodbye, Lucy. It was nice to meet you.Person 2: Bye, John. You as well. Take care. Meeting People for the First Time When introduced to someone for the first time, especially in a formal situation, use the greetings below. For informal greetings, you can either use some of these expressions or choose from the informal greetings listed above. Formal Hello, its a pleasure to meet you.(Its) (very) nice to meet you.Pleased/Glad/Good to meet you.How do you do. Example of a Formal Dialogue Person: Ken, meet Steve.Ken: Hello, its a pleasure to meet you.Steve: How do you do, Ken.Ken: How do you do. Note: The reply to How do you do is How do you do. This is appropriate when you meet someone for the first time. Examples of Informal Dialogues Person 1: Jessica, this is Laura.Person 2: Hi, Laura. Im Jessica. How are you?Laura: Hi, Im fine. Good to meet you Person 1: James, this is my friend Andrew.James: Whats up?Andrew: Whats up?

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

South Canyon Wild Fire Free Essays

Luke MasieroMay 4, 2012Argumentative essayWRTG 3020 Children Shouldn’t Play With Fire The South Canyon Fire that burned Storm King Mountain for ten days during July of 1994 remains one of the most tragic fires in Colorado’s history. But what truly makes this catastrophe a great tragedy is how easily it all could have been avoided. In book Fire on the Mountain John Maclean tells the true story of the South Canyon Fire and mistakes made that caused this disaster. We will write a custom essay sample on South Canyon Wild Fire or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are many questions surrounding the South Canyon Fire tragedy, why did it take so long for government agencies in charge of forest fire suppression to fight this fire, and how were the firefighters in South Canyon not informed of the deadly conditions that took their lives? Communication and cooperation between forest service agencies is essential to coordinate equipment and men when attempting to fight a forest fire the magnitude of The South Canyon fire. In Colorado during July of 1994 the cohesive elements were missing among the forest service agencies in western Colorado. The lack of communication and cooperation fueled by childish rivalries between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grand Junction District and the Western Slope Coordination Center prolonged the suppression of the South Canyon Fire causing it to grow out of control taking the lives of 14 fire fighters. These rivalries over jurisdiction, resources and reputation hindered communication efforts, and halted resources from arriving at the South Canyon Fire to attempt early suppression efforts. Both Forest Services claim that due to the great number of large forest fires burning in Colorado the summer of 1994 the BLM Grand Junction District and Western Slope Coordination Center were short on men and equipment and searched for help among other agencies who had to be certain the South Canyon Fire was an imminent threat to people or property before they could dedicate men and resource to a site. Despite multiple red flag warnings the South Canyon Fire burned for days until it was recognized as a top priority. When 30 year fire veteran Mike Lowry arrived at the Western Slope Coordination Center to assist with this crisis of forest fires in western Colorado he was immediately concerned â€Å"Cooperation, the touchstone of modern firefighting was virtually nonexistent. Instead Lowry found competition, jealousies, and outdated thinking and policies. † increasing the difficulties of dealing with the South Canyon Fire (Maclean 24). The rivalry between the BLM’s Grand Junction District and the Western Slope Coordination Center dates all the way back to 1978 when the Western Slope Coordination Center was given responsibility for coordination of air support for 11 fire districts, the situation here was that the Western Slopes new responsibilities overlapped with jurisdictions and functions held by the BLM (Maclean 31). This friction between the BLM and the Western Slope Center stunted valuable resources from being deployed. Maclean noted that Lowry reported seeing fleets of air tankers under Western Slopes control sitting idle each morning when weather conditions were optimal for fighting fires, but it was the BLM’s Grand Junction District responsibility to request these tankers. In an attempt to save money and not over pay Western Slope, the BLM would hold off until the afternoon to request tankers, enhancing the risk of fire growing but reducing costs (Maclean 25). If the BML had requested the tankers from Western Slope earlier, the tankers could have doused the South Canyon Fire on July 3 when it was small and avoided death and destruction. Instead they delayed suppression efforts and a fire that would have cost only a few thousand dollars to maintain ended up costing millions of dollars destroying hundreds of acres and ending the lives 14 fire fighters. As the days passed the South Canyon Fire was growing yet â€Å"nobody at the BLM was calling for help† (Maclean 25) without relaying this information other offices were cut out of the loop which further delayed action in South Canyon (Maclean 32). The BLM Grand Junction District’s lack of communication lead other agencies to accuse their personnel of â€Å"controlling all the shots†(Maclean 32). On July 3 time was of the essence and since the BLM was not making any calls, Lowry took the initiative to do so. Lowry needed more men and resources than the western Colorado districts could provide and the only place these necessities could be attained was from the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) in Boise (Maclean 26). Since the BLM’s Grand Junction Districts communication did not travel far the South Canyon Fire crisis was not know and it would take 24 hours for the much needed reinforcements from Boise to land in Colorado, valuable time that allowed the South Canyon Fire to run wild (Maclean 26). Despite all the idiculous time wasting displayed by the BLM Grand Junction District and the Western Slope Coordination Center Managers from both agencies claimed they did everything in their power to fight this fire. In defense of their actions managers from the BLM Grand Junction District and Western Slope Coordination Center recall the climate and weather during the Colo rado summer of 1994. Colorado was experiencing a drought along with intense heat, creating an environment very susceptible to fire so the BLM â€Å"announced an aggressive policy of attacking all fires as soon as they were spotted† a policy they intended to uphold (Maclean 4). When powerful electric storms struck western Colorado early in July 1994 the BLM reported 15 forest fires in the Grand Junction District (Maclean p. 7). According to the BLM’s new police they needed to attack these 15 fires but they did not have enough fire fighters to be every where at once. The BLM Grand Junction District would have benefitted from the use of planes on some of the smaller fires in inaccessible locations but the BLM director for Colorado, Bob Moore, stuck to an older policy â€Å"allowing no air tanker to drop retardant unless a crew was on the ground to cover it up† (Maclean 25). Moore and other upper management also claim they did not become involved in the incident until after it was evident there was a disaster on their hands, since the South Canyon fire did appear to be less wild than other fires in Colorado during this time the BLM did not mark it as a high priority fire. The BLM and Western Slope agencies required more men. In an attempt to help the BLM and Western Slope Lowry tried to order a huge quantity of fire fighters from the Rocky Mountain Coordination Center, twenty crews amounting to 400 people but they never came (Maclean 26). This was due to managements at the Rocky Mountain Coordination Center they simply did not know how to go about getting that many people together and transporting them to South Canyon (Maclean 26). Finally Lowry turned to the NIFC for help asking them to provide any additional crews of fire fighters or equipment so that he would be prepared when the fire did get large. NIFC is very hesitant to commit crews and equipment before an out break in the fire occurs (Maclean 29). This is a difficult decision for the NIFC because during fire season lots of fires do occur the problem is, not knowing where and when the worst fires strike, the NIFC wants to ensure that their assistance is truly need. The BLM and Western Slope Coordination claim that they made every effort to get more fire fighters and equipment to South canyon but the other districts and agencies they went to for help did not see the severity lurking beneath the smock column in South Canyon and decided to allocate their resources else where. It is only natural for the BLM Grand Junction District and the Western Slope Coordination Center to defend their actions, but there is so much evidence that points to the lack cooperation between these neighboring agencies that it is difficult not to see a correlation between the tragedy and uncooperative attitudes. The bad blood between the BLM and Western Slope created by their rivalry created a terrible dynamic one that never stood a chance against a Fire like the South Canyon blowup. A catastrophe of this magnitude was predicted in an audit conducted by BLM officials from other districts. These officials reported â€Å"differences in resource management philosophies, personalities, misconceptions about the use of prescribed fire, had an unclear understanding of the position roles and responsibilities seem to have created a difficult situation with respect to the management of fire†, they couldn’t have been more spot on (Maclean 31). Team work and cooperation are vital when fighting fires, the different crew members ranging from Hot Shots, Smoke Jumpers and members of management have to work together cohesively to have the best chance of putting out a fire quickly and safely. The relationship between the BLM’s Grand Junction District and the Western Slope Coordination Center was far from cooperative. Their inability to work together because of an immature rivalry prolonged their fire suppression efforts to a point that their actions or lack there of attributed to the death of the 14 fire fighters who lost there lives during the South Canyon Fire. Fighting forest fires is a dangerous and deadly occupation, it is unacceptable for such childish behavior to be present in these government agencies who are meant to protect the property and people of the United States. It’s impossible for the BLM and Western Slope Coordination Center to save anyone if the agencies are fighting amongst them selves. Something needs to be done to create a sense of unity among the BLM Grand Junction District and the Western slope because their oor relationship affects districts throughout the state. One possible solution would be to have fire fighters switch places with another fire fighter from a different district only for about two weeks. This would allow the different district to inter act and better get to know one another. Regardless of what the solution is something must be done, before another fire consumes more lives. Work Cited Page Maclean, Norman. Fire on the Mountain the True Story of the South Canyon Fire. New York: William Morrow, 1999. Print. How to cite South Canyon Wild Fire, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Inferential Statistics And Their DiscontentsFree Sample Paper

Question: 1.Jackson even-numbered Chapter exercises (pp. 220-221; 273-275) 2.What are degrees of freedom? How are the calculated? 3.What do inferential statistics allow you to infer? 4.What is the General Linear Model (GLM)? Why does it matter? 5.Compare and contrast parametric and nonparametric statistics. Why and in what types of cases would you use one over the other? 6.Why is it important to pay attention to the assumptions of the statistical test? What are your options if your dependent variable scores are not normally distributed? Part II Part II introduces you to a debate in the field of education between those who support Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) and those who argue that NHST is poorly suited to most of the questions educators are interested in. Jackson (2012) and Trochim and Donnelly (2006) pretty much follow this model. Northcentral follows it. But, as the authors of the readings for Part II argue, using statistical analyses based on this model may yield very misleading results. You may or may not propose a study that uses alternative models of data analysis and presentation of findings (e.g., confidence intervals and effect sizes) or supplements NHST with another model. In any case, by learning about alternatives to NHST, you will better understand it and the culture of the field of education. Answer the following questions: 1.What does p = .05 mean? What are some misconceptions about the meaning of p =.05? Why are they wrong? Should all research adhere to the p = .05 standard for significance? Why or why not? 2.Compare and contrast the concepts of effect size and statistical significance. 3.What is the difference between a statistically significant result and a clinically or real world significant result? Give examples of both. 4.What is NHST? Describe the assumptions of the model. 5.Describe and explain three criticisms of NHST. 6.Describe and explain two alternatives to NHST. What do their proponents consider to be their advantages? Answer: Solution: Here, we have to write the null and alternative hypothesis for the given test. As we know that this is a one sample t test. This test is two tailed test as the alternative hypothesis is of not equal to type. Solution: According to the definition of the degrees of freedom, it is defined as the sample size minus one. The degree of freedom is nothing but the number of independent variables or the values which can be assigned to the statistical pattern of the data. Thus the degrees of freedom denote the number of independent quantities from the statistical calculations (David, 1997) and it is calculated as below: D.F. or degrees of freedom = n 1 n = sample size Solution: As we know that the statistics is divided in the two parts such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics gives the descriptive information about the variables under study. The inferential statistics gives the information about the inferences or the estimation of the population parameters based on the sample. By using the inferential statistics we can infer about the different population parameters. The inferential statistics have the significant role in the estimation of the population parameters (George, 2001). In the inferential statistics, we use the testing of hypothesis for checking the different types of claims or the hypothesis. By using testing of hypothesis we can check the claim whether we have to reject or do not reject the claim. The estimated results for the population parameters would be helpful for the future prediction of the variables. Solution: If there are more than two variables under study and we want to construct the linear model for the purpose of the prediction or inference about the population parameters, then we use the general linear model. In this general model we use the least squares techniques such as ANOVA, regression, correlation, etc. The general linear model helps us in finding the linear association or the correlation between the dependent variables and the independent variables under study (George, 2001). The general linear models have the significant role in the statistical data analysis for the social sciences. In this general linear model we used the different linear combinations of the variables and find out the relationship among the different pairs of the variables. The general linear model is used for the purpose of predicting the population parameters and by using these types of general linear model we get the idea about the variables which would help in making better decisions. The general linear model is used when there are more than two variables and there are a linear association exists between the different variables. By finding out the type of the linear associations or other types of associations exists between the given variables we decide which model we need to use. In some cases, there is a lack of the linear association or relationship but there are other types of relationship present between the variables. Solution: We have to compare the parametric and nonparametric statistics. In general, for the inferential statistics which have the parameters is called as the parametric statistics and the inference without the population parameters is called as non-parametric inference or nonparametric statistics. As we know that the parametric test is entirely depends upon the population parameters. If there is no any advanced information about the population or the parameters, then the inference about the hypothesis regarding the population is called as the nonparametric test (David, 1997). In the parametric statistics, there are specific assumptions regarding the population while in the non-parametric statistics, there are no any specific assumptions regarding the population. The parametric statistics is applicable for the variables while the nonparametric tests are applicable for the variables and attributes. Parametric test do not use for the nominal scale data but nonparametric test use for the nominal and ordinal scale data. According to the comparison, the parametric tests are more powerful than the nonparametric tests. Solution: In the statistical inference or the hypothesis test, it is very important to pay attention towards the assumptions of the statistical test because we use the testing of hypothesis under certain conditions and assumptions. Because we do most of the tests by assuming these conditions were met. If the assumptions for the testing of hypothesis do not meet, then the results based on these statistical tests would be biased (David, 1997). The decisions based on these tests would not be helpful for further use. As we know that the main assumption in the testing of hypothesis is the normality of the data or the variables under study. We know that when the dependent variables do not distributed according to the normal distribution then the results for the statistical tests would not be valid and we cannot use these results for the further use. If the assumptions for the statistical tests cannot be satisfied then we cannot use the results for these tests for the purpose of taking decisions abou t the claims or hypothesis. Solution: There are two main concepts are always used in the inferential statistics which are nothing but the level of significance and the p-value or the significance value. This significance value is denoted by the p and so many times we consider this value as 0.05 or the 5%. For most of the research studies the researcher uses the 5% level of significance and sometimes it would be 1% or 2% (0.01 or 0.02). The value of the p as 0.05 is not standard for the research at all time but most of the time use the p as 0.05. Solution: Here, we have to compare the effect size and the statistical significance. As we know that the effect size and statistical significance are two different concepts mainly used in the inferential statistics. By using the effect size of the statistical test, we get the idea about the effect of the test and statistical significance tells us the reliability of the test (Hays, 1973). The effect size is nothing but the magnitude of the difference between the different types of groups while the statistical significance is nothing but the probability of the difference between the different types of the groups. This difference is generated by the purely chance factor. There is a significant difference between the effect size and the statistical significance. In some situations we use the effect size for measuring the effect of the hypothesis test and sometimes we use the statistical significance for measuring the effect of the hypothesis test. In some situations we use the both for the compari son purpose. Solution: The statistically significant result is the result when we reject the null hypothesis or the claim under study. Most of the time, the null hypothesis is established as opposed to the claim we want to prove (Babbie, 2009). So, if we reject the null hypothesis then we do not reject the alternative hypothesis and this means we concluded that as we want to prove and this is called as the statistical significant. For example, if we reject the null hypothesis that the average income of the shop per year is $5000, this means we do not reject the alternative hypothesis that the income of the shop per year is more than $5000. In this example the test is statistically significant. Also, see the another example as we reject the null hypothesis that the average speed of the specific brand car is 72 km then we do not reject the alternative hypothesis that the average speed of the car is less than 72 km. In this case the test is statistically significant. For taking the decision we use the two typ es of different approaches. In the first approach, we compare the critical value of the test and the test statistic value of the test and then if the critical value is greater than the test statistic value then we do not reject the null hypothesis otherwise we reject the null hypothesis. In the other approach we compare the alpha value and p-value and then if the p-value is less than alpha value then we rejects the null hypothesis otherwise we do not reject the null hypothesis. Solution: The abbreviation NHST stands for the word Null Hypothesis Significance Testing. As it is described in the name null hypothesis significance testing, this testing of hypothesis is used for checking the null hypothesis with specific level of significance (Hays, 1973). In most of the testing of hypothesis or statistical tests, we assume the level of significance as specific alpha level and then we check the null hypothesis at the given level of significance. Note: Solution: In this part we have to see the criticisms of the null hypothesis significance testing. As we know that there are mainly two types of error occurs when we take decision about the null hypothesis. The first is type I error which is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis even it is true and second is the type II error which is the probability of do not rejecting the null hypothesis even it is not true. There are so many reasons for the type I and type II errors. Sometimes due to miscalculations the error is possible. It is important to reduce these types of errors from the statistical testing for getting unbiased results for the statistical tests (Leonard, 1972). The type I and type II errors have the much significance in the statistical analysis of the different statistical hypothesis tests. Based on these values we can take the proper decision about the claim or hypothesis made for testing. Solution: Here, we have to see the two alternatives to the NHST. First alternative would be elimination of the errors and the second alternative would be increasing confidence level. We can eliminate the errors by taking the proper actions while performing the testing of hypothesis. Also, (Antony, 2003) by increasing the level of confidence we would get the proper results and the advantage of this would be more reliable results for the tests. By using the first alternative i.e. by eliminating the errors we can improve the performance of the hypothesis test and by using the second alternative we increase the confidence level so that we get the more reliable results for the purpose of estimation or prediction which are useful for future reference. References Antony, J. (2003). Design of Experiments for Engineers and Scientists, Butterworth Limited, U.S.A Babbie, Earl, R. (2009). The Practice of Social Research. 12th ed. Wadsworth. David, F., Robert, P., Roger, P., (1997). Statistics, 3rd ed., W. W. Norton Company. David, R. Cox, D., Hinkley. (1979). Theoretical Statistics, Chapman Hall. Ferguson, T. (1967). Mathematical Statistics: A Decision Theoretic Approach, New York: Academic Press, Inc. George, C., Roger, L., Berger. (2001). Statistical Inference, 2nd ed., Duxbury Press. Hays, William, L. (1973). Statistics for the Social Sciences, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Leonard, J., Savage. (1972). The Foundations of Statistics, 2nd ed., New York: Dover Publications, Inc.